Project ReportingANNUAL REPORT FOR AWARD # 0001424

Paul J Crutzen ; U of Cal SD Scripps Inst 
Collaborative Research: Biomass Burning Emissions Over Southern Africa 

Participant Individuals:
Senior personnel(s) : Jürgen M Lobert

Partner Organizations:
UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA: Collaborative Research

William C. Keene of the University of Virginia is the PI on the U Va
portion of this project.
Max Planck Institut Fur Chemie: In-kind Support; Facilities; Collaborative Research
As outlined in the proposal, Max Planck Institut provided both
facilities and considerable staff hours.

Other collaborators:

Collaborators in Africa, who collected biofuels for our experiments or
provided contact information:

Tobias Landmann - KNP 
Prof. Harold Annegarn - KNP

   both at CSIR, South Africa
Dr Conrad Brain - ENP 
   Etosha Ecological Institute, Namibia
Dr Dennis Kayambazinthu - Malawi 
   Forestry Research Institute of Malawi
Mike Garstang - Simpson Weather Associates, Virginia  
Paul V. Desanker - U Virginia 
Christelle Hely - U Virginia
Hank Shugart - U Virginia 

Active collaborators at Max Planck Institut fur Chemie:

Dieter H. Scharffe - engineer, experiment support, CH4, N2O analyses
Jonathan Williams - Ph.D., experiment support

Other, independent, active MPI participants in the experiments:
Christof Jost - grad. student, SO2, volatile organics, AP-MS
Detlev Sprung - grad. student, SO2, volatile organics, AP-MS
Olga Mayol-Bracero - grad. student, bulk aerosol
Pascal Guyon - grad. student, bulk aerosol
Betina Kleis - grad. student, volatile organics, PTR-MS
Rupert Holzinger - post doc, volatile organics, PTR-MS
Thomas Klüpfel - engineer, experiment support, volatile organics,
Meinrat O. Andreae - Ph.D., experiment support

Activities and findings:

Research and Education Activities: 

A total of 60 biomass burning experiments was carried out between
November 200 and January 2001. A suite of organic halogen containing
gases (CH3Cl, CH3Br, CH3I, CH2Cl2, CH2Br2, CH2I2 and others) were
measured in the exhaust of these fires as well as the smoke mixing
ratios of CO, CO2, NOx, CH4 and N2O. 

Samples of fuel and ash were collected and processed for subsequent
analysis of elemental composition of carbon, chlorine, bromine,
iodine, nitrogen, and sulfur.  These data will allow us to assess the
elemental mass balance for each experimental burn as well as the
corresponding emission factors for individual compounds as functions
of the biofuel composition.

Preliminary findings are that emissions of CO, CO2, NOx, CH4 and N2O
were comparable to similar studies in experiment and field and that
the mixing ratios of methyl halides were about a factor of 1000 above
background concentration in the exhaust of these fires. 

Relative emission ratios to CO and CO2 will be determined and enable
comparison to results from other studies. A detailed mass balance for
each compound relative to the halogen content of the biofuel and ash
is in progress.
Training and Development:

Several graduate students and post-docs participated in this effort
(see list of participants) and the project provided the opportuntiy to
develop new skills and supported new instrumental development due to
the unique nature of the measured exhaust gases. Collaboration with
these individuals will be continued until final results are

Journal Publications:

Book(s) of other one-time publications(s):

Other Specific Products:
Data or databases
In accordance with our proposal, a total of 60 biomass burning
experiments was carried out between 11. November 2000 and 16. January
More than 200 flask samples were analyzed for mixing ratios of methyl
halide (CH3Cl, CH3Br, CH3I), CH4, N2O and many other compounds.
Continous measurements of CO, CO2 and NOx were carried out for each
We were also able to measure many more compounds than was originally
proposed and anticipate to be able to provide mass balances for
halogens Cl, Br and I from these compounds for each individual
experiment as soon as the results from elemental analysis of biofuels
and ash are finished (U Virginia contribution).
We have established a data policy that has been agreed to by all
participants and is listed below. We intent to share all data with
interested participants and publish data after finishing QA in
established journals. 

Data Policy for SAFARI-2000, MPI Biomass Burning Experiments

Principal Investigators: Paul J. Crutzen, Jürgen M. Lobert, William C.

Preliminary data generated by each participant during this experiment
will be posted for use by all other participants as soon as possible.
 Quality assured data files from all participants will be posted for
general access by the group within a maximum of 6 months after the end
of measurement period (i.e., by 1 September 2001).
All quality assured data will be posted to the public domain on a
suitable internet server no later than one year after the end of the
experimental burns (i.e., by 31 January 2002).

Each data file distributed among participants should be
self-explanatory and at minimum include the following information
(e.g., in a header or accompanying readme file):

-       Institution, department, person, or group who generated the
-       Date of data set version
-       Version of the data file (in case of later revisions)
-       Whether the data are preliminary or final
-       A brief description of the data and file structure 
-       A brief summary of data quality (detection limits, precision)

The participant who generated a given data set should be offered the
opportunity to collaborate in and coauthor the publication of any
analysis in which those data are included.  No data may be included in
any publication without the expressed consent of the participant who
generated the data. 

Participants should not be included as co-author on publications
without their expressed permission.
Physical collection (samples, etc.)
A collection of biofuel and ash samples was created during these
experiments. These samples will be used for elemental analysis and
will be kept on archive for possible future re-analysis or additional
analyses. Mass balnces of individual fires can be carried out by
comparing the elemental content of each fuel /ash combination.
Providing that available sample mass is sufficient, we may be able to
share this collection with other researchers upon request.
Instruments or equipment developed
Inlet system for gas chromatograph / mass spectrometer (GC/MS)
combination. For this project, we developed an inlet system for a new
GC/MS system at the Max Planck Institut fur Chemie. The inlet system
was customized for analysis of discreet flask samples of ambient or
process gas air as well as semi-continuous measurements of ambient air
or air from high-pressure containers.
As MPI provided the funding for this instrument, the instrument
remains property of MPI and will be used for ambient air analysis
during special projects with emphasis on hydrocarbons and oxygenated

Internet Dissemination:

This is a small project website, which is used to exchange information
and which contains images and data from this project.

Contributions within Discipline:

 Principal discipline: atmospheric chemistry, global environmental
change, biomass burning. 
The collected data will provide the basis for an estimate of regional
biomass burning emissions in southern Africa. Data are being reduced
at this time and no significant findings are available yet.
Contributions to Other Disciplines:
 Other disciplines: Terrestrial ecology, biogeochemistry, chlimate
change. No significant findings yet.
Contributions to Education and Human Resources:
 Graduate students at MPI working under the direction of the
investigators and other collaborators have participated and will
directly benefit from results of this research effort.

The involvement of researchers from southern Africa has initiated the
transfer of information and technology and hopefully contributes to
infrastructure development in the host countries.

Special Requirements for Annual Project Report:
Unobligated funds: less than 20 percent of current funds

Categories for which nothing is reported:
Outreach Activities
Products: Journal Publications
Products: Book or other one-time publication
Contributions to Resources for Science and Technology
Contributions Beyond Science and Engineering
Special Reporting Requirements
Animal, Human Subjects, Biohazards